Country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua. PNG is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. There are 852 known languages in the country, of which 12 now have no known living speakers. Capital, (and largest city): Port Moresby, located along the southeastern coast. Currency: Papua New Guinean kina (PGK).